Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Women Exercising While Pregnant Essay Example

Women Exercising While Pregnant Essay Example Women Exercising While Pregnant Essay Women Exercising While Pregnant Essay This paper aims to give relevant updates on recent evidence that concerns exercising during pregnancy; this includes effects for the fetus and the mother as well as the frequency, types, duration, rate and intensity of progression depending on the exercise performed. Current research findings on exercising during pregnancy are related with the higher cardiorespiratory fitness, reduction in depression symptoms, preventing lower back pain and urinary incontinence, and cases of the gestational diabetes, subsidized number of pregnant women who needed insulin. However, there is no correlation with the reduction in the preterm birth or birth weight rate. Therefore, the kind of exercise does not show a difference on the results and its intensity must be moderate or mild for the previous sedentary pregnant women and moderate or high for the active women. The exercise suggestions are based on recent guidelines on the low-impact, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least thrice a week. Nonetheless, new guidelines suggest an increment in weekly physical activities expenditure while instilling vigorous exercise as well as adding light training to an exercise routine of the healthy and fit pregnant women. However, cases of other chronic diseases such as hypertension have limited data hence more research has to be carried out to examine safety of this intervention. Nevertheless, physical exercise is advantageous for pregnant women even during their postpartum period. This is not linked with any risks for a newborn and could lead to alterations in lifestyle that show long-term advantages. Chapter One Introduction There is an increased amount of women in developed countries who are overweight or obese in the early pregnancy period. This could lead to severe consequences for immediate as well as long-term health of the expectant mother as well as the fetus. Therefore, pregnancy has been prioritized for application of various interventions that target to minimize unhealthy pregnant women. Pregnancy is a period that is critical and unique in a womans life because they become more receptive to the interventions of behavior change. Promotion of physical activity is the main characteristic of interventions for weight control for pregnant women because it has advantageous effects on the glucose metabolism. Physical activity may improve the outcomes of pregnancy irrespective of weight. However, some research show that pregnant women usually possess lower levels of physical activity and these levels keep on reducing as the woman advances to the later pregnancy stages. Currently, the number of expectant mothers that willingly engage in strenuous exercise has increased. Both physical activity and pregnancy increase the metabolic demands of the body but physiological adaptations of the combined demands are not expensively understood. Ultimately, one could expect immense fetal or maternal effects due to the conflicting demands of acute muscle exercising and the pregnant uterus. However, nature has presented various examples whereby intense physical activity during a pregnancy could co-exist with the pregnancys favorable outcome. Hence, further investigation on adaptations to physical activity and exercise in expectant mothers is essential from a physiological viewpoint. Physical fitness and exercise have gained popularity dramatically for the past few decades; they have taken up significant roles in many womens lives. Reproduction and physical activity for healthy women is beneficial for a baby and the mother in several ways. Therefore, a healthy woman who has a normal pregnancy could either continue regular exercises or start a new exercise routine. According to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and the American Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology (ASOG), pregnant women who are normal and health should carry out an exercise regimen. Generally, swimming is seen as a suitable and safe exercise to undertake during pregnancy and the study above shows that swimming was not linked with miscarriage. It should be noted that a reduced rate of the physical activity for many women, the level of activity is usually reduced further throughout the pregnancy and exercise before pregnancy is often not retrieved six months after giving birth (Wolfe, 2008). Among the women that actively engage in exercise before pregnancy, the aspects linked with discontinuing sporting activities during the pregnancy are the same as those for inactiveness both before and after the pregnancy. Therefore, if the exercise during pregnancy is considered healthy for the fetus and the mother, knowledge on an exercise behavior with regards to predictors and pregnancy is useful when it comes to interventions of public health. Generally, there has been increased focus on exercise or physical activity hence it is important to establish guidelines that are e vidence based during a pregnancy period. Pregnancy is considered as a normal physiological form that is characterized by growth of the fetus and the mother. From the moment of conception onwards, a fetus forms into a baby while the mother experiences physiological and physical growth. All mothers desire to have good health for themselves as well as their babies, but there are some women who are concerned about the regular maternal physical activities during pregnancy because it may lead to miscarriage, poor fetal growth, musculoskeletal injury and premature delivery. However, for the normal pregnancies, such concerns have not yet been substantiated. Indeed, the participation in a regular weight-bearing exercise has revealed that it improves the maternal fitness, restricts weight gain with no effect on fetal growth, and hastens the postpartum recovery. Additionally, there are psychological advantages of exercise and this has to be nurtured by any person that cares for a pregnant women. During a first trimester, there are major physiological alterations that take place, even though there are few maternal body changes (Frank Cone, 2011). Therefore, during the low-level exercises, pulse responses and blood pressure are not very different from a woman who is not pregnant, but fatigue could be noticed earlier during the exercise routine. When early pregnancy proceeds, blood volume expands while the uterus keeps on enlarging; here there is minimum weight gain which could vary from zero to eleven pounds. At this time, the fetus undergoes significant growth which includes organ and limb development. Due to this fact, the mother must have balanced nutrition, exercise, rest and hydration. It should be noted that the pregnant mother has to avoid a large increase in body temperature during an exercise routine. When well hydrated and fit pregnant women examine their main body temperatures in an efficient manner they should be able to regulate their body temperatures. The second trimester and third trimester come with dramatic changes in the pregnant womans body. The weight gain varies from 22 to 36 pounds which is normally around the pelvis and abdomen and this alters posture as well as the center of gravity. At this time, exercises that need agility and balance could become harder because of the change in weight distribution for the pregnant woman. Therefore, appropriately adjusted exercise equipment and aquatic exercises can b immensely helpful. The additional caloric demands during this period of pregnancy are greatly variable because the increment of caloric need cannot be accurately estimated. A lot of information exists with regards to the attitudes of pregnant women towards physical activity. Nonetheless, a limited amount of studies highlight the significant limitations to the participation and this includes lack of facilities, time and physical barriers. As a matter of fact, studies show that some pregnant women view physical activity as unsafe for the fetus. Ultimately, few studies have provided elaborate insights into experiences and views of the overweight pregnant women. Chapter Two Literature Review Many studies have shown that when pregnant women exercise, the risk of acquiring various conditions is reduced. For instance, women that exercise during the first trimesters have a great chance of delivering the baby naturally and with regards to the pre-eclampsia, the time seems to be beneficial. Also, such women may seem to have a greater ability to avoid the gestational diabetes. Hence, women that regularly exercise before pregnancy through to the time of delivery are more likely to attain a health benefit. If promoting physical exercise would limit incidences of pre-clampsia, then a first half of the pregnancy is more likely to become the effective period, particularly for the first-time mothers. However, further studies must be carried out to examine the effectiveness of this kind of program. The study will extend the findings of studies that have been done by identifying the controversy and comparing the conflicting findings. Evidence from the scientific studies shows the significant role of the physical activity particularly in the health promotion as well as quality of life. In addition, evidence of control and prevention of various diseases during pregnancy has been shown. Until almost recently, pregnant women were directed to limit their activities as well as interrupt occupational work particularly during the pregnancys final stages (Frank Cone, 2011). However, by the 1990s, practitioners admitted a positive influence resulting from constant physical activity during the gestation period and it has been encouraged. But, this applied only if the woman did not present certain adverse conditions (Frank Cone, 2011). As a matter of fact, there seems to be some kind of consensus that maintenance of a light or moderate exercise during uncomplicated pregnancy gives several benefits for the health of the woman. This has been explained by evidence that proves that exercise causes thermal response as well as circulatory redistribution that shifts blood concentration from a placenta and uterus to extremities. The process assists to reduce as well as prevent lower back pains, foster lower liquid retentions, reduce cardiovascular stress, increase oxygenation capacity, decrease blood pressure, reduce risk of the gestational diabetes, prevent thrombosis and the varicose veins and assists control of gestational weight gain (Connelly, 2009). The benefits also include the emotional aspects because exercise helps to make pregnant women more confident of themselves and satisfied with their appearance, also it raises self-esteem hence reducing chances of post-partum depression. However, the exercise during pregnancy may still raise certain controversies. According to Connelly (2009), the published guidelines and studies on exercise during pregnancy are not enough. On the other hand, Chasan-Taber et al. (n.d) state that even though they are limited, the literature recommends that practicing the moderate exercise while pregnant will not present additional risks and it does not result to unwanted outcomes for both the fetus and the mother. Both researchers still suggest that more studies have to be carried out. The advantages of exercise or physical activity during a gestation period do not seem to be appropriately publicized and some of them consider this theme as a taboo. Most women perceive that physiological limitations presented by the pregnancy hinder them from taking part in programs which enhance regular exercise. Other women perceive that remaining relaxed and rested during pregnancy is more important as compared to exercising or maintaining the active lifestyle. Exercising while pregnant has raised many controversies from researchers and experts but this study aims to carry out systematic reviews of scientific articles on an association between the exercising while pregnant and an occurrence of the maternal-child health results. The review will focus particularly on the aspect of physical activity for pregnant women based on the occupational and leisure-time physical activity. The former includes activities related to an individuals occupation (unpaid or paid), that is, all the activities performed within the work space which includes housework. While leisure-time physical activity refers to activities performed with an aim of promoting health or leisure. According to World Health Organization, exercise plays an important role when it comes to the hindrance of the cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, stroke, breast and colon cancer as well as depression. Previously, women had to limit the physical activity once they got pregnant because of the assumed high risk of the spontaneous abortion as well as preterm birth. Pregnancy is considered as a unique condition that is characterized by the various physiologies in a mother and the concern for the developing fetus; however, this precaution is currently disregarded in general. Today, exercise is an added part of the antenatal care. For instance, the US, Great Britain, Norway, Canada and Denmark recommend that pregnant women should engage in physical activities that is equal to a women who are not pregnant. Apart from general health advantages, the physical activity is linked with favorable effects on the maternal outcomes in the gestation period like pre-clampsia and gestational diab etes (LeMoyne et al., 2012). However, Wang et al. (2015) question the assumed preventive actions on pre-clampsia. When looking at the negative and positive effects of exercise during pregnancy especially on the fetus health, the evidence is usually weak. People have always believed that physical activities may initiate labor activity as well as imminent pre-term birth hence this can only be avoided through bed rest. However, such notions are scientifically proven but they have come up as matters of precaution particularly in the absence of proper treatment actions against the pre-term labor. Moreover, hypotheses that have been presented by Schirmer (2007) show that the physical activity could lead to reduced fetal development because of the redistribution to working muscles rather than the fetus and placenta. Therefore, there are still concerns for an unborn child with regards to a mothers exercising level, and few reviews touch on maternal exercise and the reproductive outcomes. The initial study on the maternal physical activity was examined and the risk of a miscarriage is among the most popular adverse pregnancy results. It was found that an increased risk of a miscarriage among pregnant women who engaged in physical activity was high for the ones in their first trimester (Wang et al., 2015). It was revealed that where was a relation between the level of exercise as well as the risk of a miscarriage. Furthermore, certain kinds of exercise like jogging, racket sports and ball games were found to be closer related to a miscarriage as compared to other activities. A section of this association could be explained by the potential bias because of the retrospective exposure data collected. Nevertheless, studies on the lifestyle aspects in the beginning of pregnancy as well as early fetal loss using data that has been collected prospectively are hard to carry out hence they are rarely done. Generally, swimming is seen as a suitable and safe exercise to undertake during pregnancy and the study above shows that swimming was not linked with miscarriage. It should be noted that a reduced rate of the physical activity for many women, the level of activity is usually reduced further throughout the pregnancy and exercise before pregnancy is often not retrieved six months after giving birth (Wolfe, 2008). Among the women that actively engage in exercise before pregnancy, the aspects linked with discontinuing sporting activities during the pregnancy are the same as those for inactiveness both before and after the pregnancy. Therefore, if the exercise during pregnancy is considered healthy for the fetus and the mother, knowledge on an exercise behavior with regards to predictors and pregnancy is useful when it comes to interventions of public health. Generally, there has been increased focus on exercise or physical activity hence it is important to establish guidelines that are e vidence based during a pregnancy period. Wolfes (2008) findings on physical activity linked with miscarriage along with a sparse knowledge of the possible effects on a fetus of the maternal physical activity came to be the main aims of the study because physical activity has been extremely focused on in the public health. However, it should be noted that just informing women about exercising while pregnant is not enough because of barriers like time and financial constraints and absence of transport and facilities. These pressures could prevent the women from organizing an exercise program. Nevertheless, if a practitioners knowledge is insufficient on whether exercise is valuable during pregnancy, then the pregnant woman may not know the health benefits it has. Hence physical exercise has the ability to enhance the outcomes of physical health during pregnancy. Wang et al. (2015) believe that exercise has to begin in the first trimester of a pregnancy or before the pregnancy in order to get the most benefit. The promotion of physical exercise at the start of the pregnancy seems to be very beneficial particularly to first time mothers. Most of the studies that have been carried out with regards to pregnant women engaging in exercise have been prospective and observational whereby only limited studies were carried out through random trials. Furthermore, the exercises done by pregnant women are not similar in terms of intensity, frequency, duration and type of exercise because they are distinct between studies hence they are hard to compare and quantify. Therefore, fitness for maternal pre-pregnancy varies. According to Schirmer, (2007), these variables are important when it comes to determining the influence of exercise on a fetus and the woman. Moreover, these control groups utilized during the study are not consistent and they range from women that have not exercised before to women that exercised before a pregnancy but stopped exercising during the pregnancy to the women who kept on exercising during the pregnancy. This makes it difficult to compare between various studies. According to LeMoyne et al. (2012) there are several physiological changes that take place during a pregnancy which could affect an exercising pregnant woman. They add that at the beginning of a first trimester blood volume increases, the plasma volume increases as well as the mass of red blood cells; the cardiac output also increases because of the increased stroke volume and heart rate. These changes can be seen in the early first trimester whereby by twelve weeks the increase in cardiac output is up by 35 percent above the pre-pregnancy levels. He concludes that regular exercise can also increase blood volume and cardiac output. There are physiologic changes that can be seen in pregnant women who exercise regular and they are usually amplified. Hughes (2006) says that when comparing women that exercise before a pregnancy, an additional 40 percent increase in the cardiac output is seen in women that keep on exercising while they are pregnant as compared to the women that do not. This effect can also be seen in blood volume that expands up to 20 percent in women that keep on exercising while they are pregnant. Freyder (2009) believes that exercising while pregnant does not just improve fitness, but the women that exercise while pregnant have fewer pregnancy symptoms like somatic complaints, anxiety and insomnia. On the other hand, Evenson Bradley (2010) study showed that the women that kept on exercising for 20 minutes every week have fewer pregnancy symptoms which include heartburn, nausea, lower back pain, leg cramps, ligament pain and so on during the first trimester and third trimester. Women that exercised before pregnancy still have benefits throughout the pregnancy even after they stop exercising. However, these benefits are not as good if they are compared with the women that kept on exercising during the pregnancy. The study also shows that pregnant women that exercised while pregnant but stopped later during pregnancy showed fewer symptoms but with less improvement of the symptoms but noted a subsidized improvement in the symptoms after exercise stopped. Frank Cone (2011) believe that exercising while pregnant improves self-image but after 2 weeks of cessation of physical activity, this positive influence begins to disappear. They prove that women that begin an exercise routine during pregnancy have immense improvement in physical health, muscular strength, body build, energy level and stamina. This information on the maternal weight increase conflict. Various observational studies and two meta-analyses revealed no difference when it came to the maternal weight increase. However, the meta-analyses could not find a distinctiveness between intensity, exercise type, levels of pre-pregnancy fitness or duration when the results were being examined. All of these factors may impact the maternal weight increase. Various observational studies revealed that women that exercise while pregnant gained minimal weight as compared to the control group. The studies involved women that exercised before pregnancy and kept on doing so while they were pregnant. Connelly (2009) carried out an observational study which compares the fit women who kept on exercising three times a week for an average of 30 minutes while in the #7th week of gestation to women that halted exercising while pregnant and revealed that the weight gain rate was the same between both groups in first trimester but this was immensely lesser during the second trimester and the third trimester with regards to those women that kept on exercising. This total weight increase was around 3kgs lesser within the exercise group; hence, it was still in the suggested range of the maternal weigh increase or gain. A study by Chasan-Taber et al. (n.d) showed that around 1.9 kg weight increases in the women that participated in the exercise routine for around 2 hours every week for almost 12 weeks. The weight gain could be due to the amount, timing and intensity of the exercise during the pregnancy. Various studies also show delivery and labor related outcomes with regards to engaging in exercise while pregnant. Chapter Three Methodology The study will be conducted through a search whereby articles will be identified through the literature search of LILACS and MEDLINE databases using key words like exercise or physical activity and gestation or pregnancy. The articles will include those that have been published between the years 2005 to 2015 in English and the will refer to follow-up, case-control and cross-sectional epidemiological studies. The expected principal outcomes of these studies will be gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, miscarriage, gestational weight increase, fetal development or growth, prematurity, mode of delivery or prematurity. The search procedure involves a survey of references that are based on key words that finds 3,300 articles. The references will be sifted using search filters. Articles with abstracts will be read depending on other inclusion criteria that have been verified. The studies will undergo methodological quality based on the fetus and mother outcomes. The studies will be evaluated independently and assessed using Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Then the results will be classified based on the scale to measure the concordance between various evaluation methods. The studies will be organized according to country of origin, publication year, study design (cross-sectional, case control, cohort), sample size, maternal-fetal health outcomes, physical activities measurements, participants age, and results in order to estimate what was used in the scoring and analysis of methodological quality. Later, the studies will be grouped in terms of the ones with similar results depending on the outcome. The objective of this is to facilitate and systematize understanding of the findings of articles that have been reviewed. Moreover, the mean of the total scores that will be assigned to these studies in every group will be calculated. No article will be rejected due to its methodological limitations, but the results will be considered much more consistent in these studies which could receive higher scores. References Chasan-Taber, L, Schmidt, MD, Pekow, P, Sternfeld, B, Manson, J, Markenson, G. (n.d.).Correlates of physical activity in pregnancy among Latina women. 353-363.) Springer New York LLC. Connelly, F. S. (January 01, 2009). Exercising while pregnant.The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,10,9, 358-65. Evenson, K. R., Bradley, C. B. (January 01, 2010). Beliefs about exercise and physical activity among pregnant women.Patient Education and Counseling,79,1, 124-9. Frank, E., Cone, K. (January 01, 2011). Characteristics of pregnant vs. non-pregnant women physicians: findings from the women physicians health study.;International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,;69,;1, 37-46. Freyder, S. C. (March 01, 2009). Literature Review: Exercising While Pregnant.;Journal of Orthopaedic ; Sports Physical Therapy,;10,;9, 358-365. Hughes, H. (2006).;Watercise while you wait: A unique exercise program for pregnant women. Mesa, AZ: HH Books. LeMoyne, Elise L, Curnier, Daniel, St-Jacques, Samuel, ; Ellemberg, Dave. (2012).;The effects of exercise during pregnancy on the newborns brain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (BioMed Central Ltd.) BioMed Central Ltd. Schirmer, J. (2007).;High-risk diabetic pregnancy and work: two hard-to-reconcile circumstances. (Revista panamericana de salud publica, 2, 6, 408-14.) ; Wang, Chen, Zhu, Weiwei, Wei, Yumei, Feng, Hui, Su, Rina, ; Yang, Huixia. (2015).Exercise intervention during pregnancy can be used to manage weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. (BioMed Central Ltd.) BioMed Central Ltd. Wolfe, L. A. (January 01, 2008). Pregnant Women and Endurance Exercise. 531-546. ;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The 21 Best Dogs for Apartment Living

The 21 Best Dogs for Apartment Living SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Living in an apartment doesn’t mean you can’t also have a happy, healthy dog as well (unless your apartment complex doesn’t allow dogs, of course!). Though apartment living comes with a few hurdles when it comes to dog ownership, finding the right dog breed can make all the difference. With a little effort, the majority of dog breeds can live in apartments, but apartment living is certainly easier with some breeds than others. So let’s check out what qualities make for a good apartment dog and the top breeds that fit the bill. What Makes a Good â€Å"Apartment Dog†? There are a few basic qualifications for the best apartment dogs, since living in an apartment (as opposed to living in a freestanding home) brings with it a few restrictions: The size of your place is likely relatively small. You have more difficulty getting a dog to a grassy area to relieve themselves. You have to worry about noise level with your neighbors sharing a wall with you. To help your dog live comfortably in your space, a good apartment dog should meet at least one (but preferably two or three) of four qualities: Be small to medium in size. Have low to medium exercise needs. Be able to hold their bladders for several hours at a time (or be comfortable using a wee mat or turf for their potty needs). Be relatively quiet. Size and Weight Most apartments are much smaller than the average freestanding home, so a dog will have less room to move and romp around in an apartment. The larger the dog, the less room they have in a small space and the more likely they are to feel â€Å"cooped up.† Larger dogs will also be more likely to accidentally leaving destruction in their wake in a small space. An enthusiastic jump or tail-wag from a five-pound dog won’t do much damage in an apartment, but the same gesture from a large dog in a small space can easily knock items off a low table, knock over lamps and other furniture, or otherwise cause chaos. In addition, larger breeds are also more prone to joint and hip problems and can have more difficulty going up and down stairs. And this can get especially tricky in an apartment complex. When it comes to sheer size alone, it’s often best for both dogs and humans if an apartment dog is less than 50 pounds (even better if the dog is less than 25 pounds). There are some exceptions to this rule, but in general, smaller is better for apartment living. Exercise Needs All dogs need daily exercise and living in an apartment can sometimes make this tricky. Without a backyard, your dog must get its daily exercise quotient from walks, some amount of playing and romping in the apartment, and trips to outdoor spaces like a dog park. Some breeds require a boatload of exercise and stimulation to be happy (a Border Collie, for example, could run circles around most people without tiring), while other breeds take a more laid back approach to life. With dedication, you can exercise most dog breeds well enough to handle apartment living, but it will take commitment and a significant amount of time each day to accomplish this. As most people do not have the time or energy to exercise a high-energy breed all the time, the best dog breeds for apartments are those naturally equipped to need less exercise. The best apartment dogs are content with a daily, 20 to 30 minute walk or trip to the park, and will spend the rest of their day snoozing, chewing, or playing games indoors. Potty Needs Even when fully grown, toy breeds and other small dog breeds simply can’t hold their bladders as long as larger breeds can. And living in an apartment can make it more difficult for you to take your dog outside. But don’t despair! If you live in an apartment, you have a few options for your dogs and their potty needs. Because it can sometimes be tricky to constantly take a dog outside, you can either: Choose a dog breed that can hold its bladder for a reasonably long amount of time (seven to eight hours) Choose a dog that’s small enough to comfortably use a wee mat or fake turf If you don’t want dog waste in your home and your apartment has a balcony, you can set up a bathroom area with mats or turf outside. You can also simply set aside a corner of the bathroom or other area of the home for this purpose if you don’t mind your dog going potty indoors. The best apartment dogs will either be able to follow a routine of going outside on a leash with you every seven to eight hours to relieve themselves, or they will be small and trainable enough able to go cleanly and comfortably in or around the apartment. Noise Level Apartment living means sharing walls (and noise) with your neighbors. For the sake of peace and quality of apartment living, it’s a good idea to choose a dog breed that’s less inclined to bark. Some breeds are natural â€Å"watchdogs† and will light up at any perceived threat or noise, while other breeds will generally keep mum. Though, with time and patience, you can train a â€Å"watchdog† to be less reactive, it’s simpler to go with a dog that’s little less likely to light up in the first place. Some dogs will also tend to bark or howl when left alone, so a good apartment dog should be one less inclined towards this kind of separation anxiety. The 21 Best Apartment Dogs Now that we’ve looked at some of the most important criteria of what makes for good apartment dogs, let’s see the breeds that make the cut for the best dogs for apartment living. Bichon Frise Cuddly and kind, the Bichon Frise is a popular toy breed that requires little exercise and isn’t prone to yappiness or other excessive barking. They are easily adaptable to new environments and are willing to listen to training and gentle correction. They can, however, be inclined towards separation anxiety. So you may have to be careful about separation whining or barking and look into separation anxiety training if this happens. Brussels Griffon Despite looking like they walk around with a perpetual cartoon frown, the Brussels Griffon is an extremely sweet breed of dog and wants little more out of life than love and cuddles. In fact, they will often demand love and cuddles (and play!) at home, but they don’t need a lot of outdoor exercise to be happy. They can be stubborn and difficult to train, so try to nip any bad habits- like watchdog barking, whining, or indoor soiling- in the bud before they become too firmly established. And a loving training regime will do wonders to curb any unwanted behavior. Cavalier King Charles Spaniel You’ll never be in want of love or cuddles with a King Charles Cavalier around. An extremely friendly and easy-going dog, some will greet guests by giving a couple of friendly barks and licks. But they aren’t inclined to bark excessively or at strange noises (unless they see a bird out the window). They’re a curious and playful breed, but don’t need much exercise beyond a daily walk. Their favorite place is in a lap- your lap, a friend’s, a stranger’s, any lap will generally do! Chihuahua Popular for their small size and big, sweet eyes, the Chihuahua is an often-seen apartment dog. Though their size and minimum exercise needs are perfectly suited to apartment living, they can also be prone to loudness if not well-trained. So be sure you know how to train against excessive barking before you take on Chihuahua ownership! Chihuahuas are probably best trained on a wee mat or turf since they can’t hold their bladders very long. Coton de Tulear Bouncy balls of cotton-fluff, Coton de Tulears are adaptable, friendly, and fun. They’ll make their own entertainment when you’re busy, but they will also take direction well if it’s time for training or games. They need to spend one or two days a week romping around a park to run, but otherwise are content with daily walks. They’re happy to be outside or inside snuggling, whichever’s on the menu. English Bulldog English Bulldogs are sweet, gentle, and fairly low-maintenance. Not much inclined towards exercise or barking, these dogs would rather be sleeping or lounging than running or sounding the alarm, making them one of the very best dogs for apartments. Do take care that these are brachiocephalic dogs, which means they have flat faces. This can make breathing- especially strenuous breathing- difficult, so be careful with exercise and hot weather and make sure to monitor them closely. French Bulldog Friendly, funny, and relaxed French Bulldogs will often be happy to entertain themselves. But they’ll almost never snub an affection pat, so don’t mistake independence for aloofness. Another brachiocephalic dog breed, so little exercise is needed or required here. Though do take care that the French Bulldog is inclined towards (over)eating, which means you’ll have to be careful of weight gain, since it’s difficult for them to run off those extra pounds. Glen of Imaal Terrier A spunky, curious breed, Glen of Imaal Terriers are eager to explore the environment around them. They are less inclined towards confrontation or hunting than other terriers are, so are a little less likely to get themselves into trouble. Glen of Imaal Terriers require some quick exercise to be happy, so in addition to a daily walk, they’d like a few days in the park, a jog, or other opportunity to run every week, but will be happy to spend the rest of the time indoors with the family. Greyhound Though they’re large, extremely prey-driven dogs, Greyhounds are happy couch potatoes and will be satisfied with a daily walk and playtime at home. This is especially true for former racing Greyhounds who are more than content to retire to a life of relaxation. Very sensitive, snuggly, and loving, Greyhounds are tuned into your emotions and needs. They are quiet dogs, but they are also inclined towards separation anxiety and separation-based destruction. So start training them early how to handle your leaving the house if you don’t want to come home to the destruction of all your worldly possessions. Havanese Playful, spirited, and brave, the Havanese is a high energy breed that requires daily mental stimulation. But they don’t need much more than a short daily walk when it comes to physical exercise. It’s a good idea, however, to bring this dog on regular outings in the world- especially to different locations whenever possible- to feed some of that mental energy. But, otherwise, the Havanese will be happy to spend the day indoors, sticking close to their family and snuggling. Lhasa Apso The Lhasa Apso is a loyal, sweet, and gentle dog with model-like hair. They’re also smart dogs, though, unlike many clever dog breeds (such as terriers), Lhasa Apsos are not inclined towards mischief or destruction when bored. They will, however, seek you out to ask for playtime and attention when they need it. They will also sound the alert if startled, so some training may be necessary. But, even then, the Lhasa Apso has a fairly quiet, and less-than-intimidating bark. Miniature Pinscher Miniature Pinschers are clever, fearless, and affectionate. Give them love, play, and a daily chance to sniff and explore, and your Miniature Pinscher (or â€Å"Min Pin†) will have everything its heart desires. These are natural watchdogs, but easily trained, so you can curb excessive barking with a little know-how (and a lot of treats!). Min Pin’s need a chance to run at least once or twice a week, but are otherwise content with a daily walk and some playtime at home. Papillon The Papillon is a smart, responsive, and playful breed. They can be timid towards strangers, but once they love you they love you, and there’s no letting go. Graceful and energetic, they love to play with their families and need to run off some energy, but a daily walk and some time in the park will be enough for them. Pekingese The Pekingese is an affectionate, but not overly-needy dog, happy to spend time either alone or with people. A Pekingese will also alert you to any visitors that come a’knocking, but won’t get carried away with barking. They are sweet dogs, eager to cuddle and play, but who don’t need too much exercise. In fact, the Pekingese is another brachiocephalic breed, so be careful with hot weather and letting your Pekingese get too much exercise too quickly. Toy Poodle All Poodle breeds (Toy Poodle, Miniature Poodle, and Standard Poodle) are highly intelligent dog breeds that are easily trainable. But the Toy Poodle requires the least amount of exercise of the three types and is often the most even-tempered, so they’re typically the best choice of the three breeds when it comes to apartment living. Curious and playful, the Toy Poodle does well when provided with regular stimulus. It’s a good idea to take your Toy Poodle out and about with you when you’re running errands or are otherwise outside. Letting them see the world will help them focus all that mental energy, and will provide a daily dose of fun. Pug Pugs are generally quiet, laid back dogs that make great apartment companions. They’re sweet and goofy, and while they’re happy to play with you, most Pugs don’t need excessive amounts of attention throughout the day to be happy. They also don’t require much exercise and too much can even be harmful, as their brachiocephalic faces can cause breathing problems if they over-exert themselves or are out too long in hot weather. Do note that they can be prone to weight-gain, however, so be diligent in balancing out their meals and walks. Shih Tzu Friendly and relaxed, the Shih Tzu often has a large-dog temperament in a small-dog body. They’ll be happy to explore the world with you or chill out on the couch, depending on what you want to do that day. They’re also eager to learn and are highly trainable, so playtime is a must. But they don’t need too much in the way of exercise to be content. Silky Terrier Silky Terriers (or â€Å"Silkies†) are loyal and loving to their families, but are often wary of the world. So they can be prone to giving the alert by barking, both indoors and out, but training will help curb this tendency. Playful and energetic little dogs, Silkies are eager to play but will be happy with a short daily walk when it comes to their exercise needs. And when they’re not playing, they’re happy to curl up in small spaces, which makes apartment living perfect for them. Skye Terrier Pleple2000/Wikimedia Affectionate and fearless, Skye Terriers will take on the world, but they are sensitive to harsh words or reprimands from their families. Come at them gently and they’ll never be far from your side. Skye Terriers are mild-mannered and easily adaptable to city life and apartment living. They need daily walks but are otherwise content to play, explore, and snuggle at home. Tibetan Spaniel Tibetan Spaniels are extremely easy-going dogs. Adaptable to new situations and environments, they are equally as happy to go on long walks as they are to snuggle on the couch. Though they may sound the alarm for visitors, a well-placed treat will silence any barking. And they’re otherwise quiet enough that your neighbors will wonder whether or not you even have a dog in your apartment. Yorkshire Terrier Like most terriers, Yorkshire Terriers (or Yorkies) are spunky little balls of mischief and fun. They’re loving and cuddly with their families, but they are often shy of strangers. Many will try to run away or hide if a stranger tries to pet them, so it’s a good idea to socialize them early. Yorkies are energetic and playful and are happy to run, but don’t actually require much daily exercise beyond a regular, half-hour walk. Many Yorkies will also sound the alarm by barking if they hear visitors or other â€Å"suspicious† noises, but training can minimize this tendency. How to Help Any Dog Adjust to Apartment Living Though these are the best dog breeds for apartments, most dogs can learn to live in an apartment with enough exercise and the right training. And even the best apartment dogs will need to learn how to cope with the unique circumstances that make up apartment living. So let’s look at what you need to do to teach your dog how to adapt to apartment living. #1: Train Them to Get Used to the Noise Apartments can be loud. There’s noise above you, below you, to the sides of you, and the noise from people walking down the hallway in front of your front door. To your dog, all these people making noise near your home is a flagrant breech of privacy, and they can induce fear, anxiety, and even fear-based aggression. Help your dog get used to the noise of apartment living by connecting the noise to positive stimuli. Give your dog a happy-sounding cue word (like, â€Å"What’s that?!†) and a treat whenever you hear the noise from your neighbors. You can also invite a friend over (one that your dog likes) to knock on your door. Give the cue word and the treat when your dog hears the noise, then give your dog an extra reward by letting your friend inside for happy pats and cuddles. #2: Give Them Their Own Designated Space Your dog is a part of your family, and the apartment is a den for all of you to share. But just like you need your own space away from other people sometimes, so too does your dog. Make the apartment seem larger for your dog by providing them with their own, human-free zone. This might be a crate, or a dog playpen, or even just a dog bed in the corner of the apartment. Just make sure it’s a space where your dog can retreat to when they want some time alone and that you don’t try to bother your pup when it goes there. #3: Introduce Them to Other Dogs in the Complex If your apartment complex allows dogs, then chances are there are a good number of other dogs living in the building. To help your dog feel comfortable with these dogs (especially hearing these dogs move, bark, or whine throughout the day), see if you can introduce your pup to the other dogs in the building. Try to take your dog to the places the other dogs go for bathroom breaks, or introduce yourself to any of your neighbors that you see with dogs. Set up doggy playdates to help your pup make friends with the neighbor dogs (and you may even make some human friends out of it too!). #4: Teach Them How to Use a Wee Mat or Train Them to â€Å"Hold It† for Long Periods of Time Wee mats smell faintly of urine and pheromones, so dogs will naturally be inclined to potty on them. But even so, you’ll have to train your dog on how to use the wee mat or the indoor turf to make the process fun and easy and avoid any accidents. If you choose to forgo wee mats and train your dog to wait until you can go outside together, then you’ll have to progress slowly. Many grown dogs can potentially hold their bladders for upwards of 8 hours, but not all dogs can manage this. Start by taking your dog outside every 2 to 3 hours and then increase the time between outings by half an hour every few days until you get up to between 6 and 8 hours. If your dog starts to have accidents indoors or sniffs or whines to go outside, then you may need to decrease the time between potty breaks. Alternatively, you may think about getting a doggy turf to place in your bathroom or on the apartment balcony.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Strategic Change Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words

Strategic Change Management - Assignment Example For even the most successful companies, survival cannot be guaranteed. In many segments of the economy, organisation should have talent to adapt quick to change for their survival. When business organisations fail to change, the cost of failure may be quite high. For instance, Eastman Kodak Company was once a great successful business, but now it is in the doldrums as it failed to recognise changes that were happening in the industry. Eastman Kodak narrow-minded corporate culture assumed that its strength was its marketing strategy and brand, and it miscalculated the threat of digital cameras (Dan 2012). This research report will analyse why business is to give great significance to strategic change management, and if it failed to recognise the changes happening around it , it may become one of the 70 companies disappeared from the list of top 100 companies of Fortune magazine and how the Eastman Kodak failure is offering the costly lesson for not responding to changes with particula r reference to eBay by demonstrating how eBay is responding to strategic change management quickly and fastly to secure its market position. The strategic change involves enhancing the alignment between an organisation’s atmosphere, organisational design and strategy. Strategic change interventions include initiatives to enhance both the organisation’s association to its environment and the proper balance between its cultural, political and technical systems. Due to some major disruptions to the organization, the need for change is normally triggered such as a technological breakthrough, removal of regulatory needs or where a new CEO has been appointed who is hailing from the outside the organization. The speed of the international technological and economic development makes the change as an unavoidable factor for an organisation. Organisational development (OD) is designed by introducing the planned change to enhance an organisation’s

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Analysis of Industrial Relations Law Research Paper

Analysis of Industrial Relations Law - Research Paper Example Her self-professed aim was to shift the balance of power in industry and restore management prerogative in the workplace. The extent to which her policies succeeded in transforming the character of production politics and industrial performance has been the subject of intense debate. One line of argument suggests that, in contrast to the Donovan reform strategy which failed to deliver significant performance gains in the 1970s, Thatcher's policies appear to have done the trick (Metcalf 1989). The potent combination of rising unemployment, tougher labor laws, privatization, and deregulation allegedly gave birth to 'new' industrial relations practices in the workplace and a corresponding improvement in productivity and competitiveness. The analysis which follows challenges this perspective. It argues that the system of industrial relations and employment regulation which came to dominate key sectors of the economy after 1945 was not conducive to industrial modernization: not, it should be stressed, for the reasons cited by proponents of the conventional wisdom, but because the trade unions and other regulatory mechanisms were too weak to force firms to abandon progressively outmoded business practices. The presence of a relatively cheap, disposable, and malleable labor force inhibited the emergence of high wage, high productivity growth strategies and helped entrench a relatively low wage, low productivity industrial system from which it is now proving difficult to escape. There is also a second sense, which concerns the academic study of industrial relations and its relationship to economics. Much more so than in other European countries and the United States, there has been a sharp demarcation line in Britain between the study of the institutions of job regulation and the study of their economic consequences. This may seem an academic point, but it is not without consequence, for this unwelcome division of academic labor has served to impede theoretical innovation and entrench established ideas, particularly the conventional wisdom. It is relatively uncontroversial to note that in the three decades after 1945 British industrial performance exhibited significant deficiencies as compared to other leading capitalist economies. Relevant performance measures in this context include output and productivity growth rates, the balance of trade, and investment in technology, plant, and people. The evidence of British underperformance is most striking in the case of manufacturing. Comparisons of output and productivity movements across time, sectors, and countries are fraught with measurement problems (Nolan and O'Donnell 1995). Nevertheless, the evidence--whatever its shortcomings-reveals a substantial and enduring shortfall between Britain's record and that of other leading economies. Fig. 5.1 charts the movements in manufacturing output and exposes a significant and growing gap between Britain and the other countries. For the period shown, domestic output has remained more or less stagnant.  Ã‚  

Friday, January 24, 2020

Honour and Fidelity Varies for Men and Women in the play Much Ado about

The theme for honour and fidelity apply for both men and women in Shakespeare’s play ‘much ado about nothing’. Honour and fidelity is represented very differently for men and women as it would have been for the people in Elizabethan times. In this first section of the essay, I will be exploring double standards and Shakespeare’s awareness of the double standards between sexes and his feminist approach, the differences of honour and fidelity for men and women and upper class and lower class comparisons. In order for men to be honourable, they should do great deeds in war which gives them good recognition. From the very beginning of the play we see evidence of this when Leonato says in act 1, scene 1. Leonato: ‘I find here that †¦bestowed much honour on†¦.Claudio’. Deeds in war of course come hand in hand with reputation and a good name which plays an important role in the play. Another quotation showing the importance of a good name is where Hero talks to Ursula about Benedick in the garden scene in Act 3 Scene 1. Hero: ‘Indeed, he hath an excellent good name’. Another important aspect of honour and fidelity for men are friendship or comradeship. The men’s loyalty to their friends was very important as it showed that they were trustworthy and could bestow that trust upon each other. In 1:1:64 Beatrice says ‘He hath every month a new sworn brother,’ at this point Beatrice and Benedick aren’t getting on so well she states this as to mock him and later says that ‘He wears faith as the fashion of his hat.’ For women, honour and fidelity meant very different things to what it did for a man. In order for them to gain honour and fidelity, they had to do very things in order for it to be achieved. Women do not expect fidelity from men... ...s many times as he likes ‘the more the better’ in a man’s world however if a women was to sleep around then she would be considered a ‘whore’ and would be slated for it. This shows that although women have a lot more rights in the modern world, the rules in sexuality and honour have not changed a great deal since Shakespearean times. In conclusion, Shakespeare has used the concept of honour and fidelity throughout the play. He shows many different aspects of honour and fidelity through his characters, the contrasting differences between men and women. He shows us what how important these traits are to Elizabethan society and if honour was ever lost in the upper classes the consequences were never too pleasant. Shakespeare even shows us the true loyalty between Benedick and Beatrice which gives and insight to his feminist views which were quite modern for the time.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Managerial Finance Closing Essay

The company announces that it is not expanding, what do you think will happen to the price of the bonds? What will happen to the price of the bonds if the company does expand? I believe if the company announces that it is not expanding then the prices of the bonds would not change, however if the company decides to expand then the prices of the bonds would increase due to the increase in the value of the company and the return would be greater. 5. If the company opts not to expand, what are the implications for the companies future borrowing needs? What are the implications if the company does expand? If the company decides not to expand, I do not believe that the implication for the companies future borrowing needs would differ too much from if they decided to expand. However one variation is if the company decides to expand they will receive more equity as shown above by the calculations. If the company has an increase of equity, they have the opportunity for an increase of borrowing, if they needed. However, if the company opts not to expand, they can still borrow in the future, however, their equity will remain the same, which would give them less variation in regards to borrowing. 6. Because of the bond covenant, the expansion would have to be financed with equity. How would it affect your answer if the expansion were financed with cash on hand instead of new equity? From my perspective, I do not see an issue with the expansion being financed with equity rather than â€Å"cash on hand†. I believe it would be an easier wait to keep track of the finances. I thought the primary reason some companies use equity to finance new projects is because they do not have the â€Å"cash on hand† to begin with, and although they have equity, it would be far too much trouble to convert it over to cash. So, they would rather use equity to finance.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The 3 Types of RNA and Their Functions

One common homework and test question asks students  to name the three types of RNA and list their functions. There are several types of ribonucleic acid, or RNA, but most RNA falls into one of three categories. mRNA or Messenger RNA mRNA transcribes the genetic code from DNA into a form that can be read and used to make proteins. mRNA carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of a cell. rRNA or Ribosomal RNA rRNA is located in the cytoplasm of a cell, where ribosomes are found. rRNA directs the translation of mRNA into proteins. tRNA or Transfer RNA Like rRNA, tRNA is located in the cellular cytoplasm and is involved in protein synthesis. Transfer RNA brings or transfers amino acids to the ribosome that corresponds to each three-nucleotide codon of rRNA. The amino acids then can be joined together and processed to make polypeptides and proteins.